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I have FC2. I'm looking for some good comparison info for going from Windows to Linux... for example...

1) DOS commands ---> Terminal commands
2) Windows' "program files" ---> what would be the equivalent in linux????
3) Defragmenting ---> Is this even necessary with linux???
4) Windows' registry ---> ???
5) And any other info would be greatly appreciated...

Also, I've never seen spyware/adware or viruses on linux systems... so i'm assuming that there's no need for sweepers to remove such things, but why is this?
cd cd
dele unlink
mkdir mkdir
xxxx /? man xxxx

(Webmonkey's UNIX guide has more commands -

2) Programs a re normally kept in /usr/ but the component bits (such as libraries) are spread out, and some software goes in /opt/. Utilities may go in /bin/ so there is no real answer to this question

3) Im not sure...

4) All Linux config is held inside files, mostly inside your home directory (per-user options) or /etc/ (system-wide)

5) If you use an RPM-based distro (Fedora, RedHat, Mandrake and others) then you can use to search for RPM packages

Windows-lovers will tell you its because fewer people use Linux. In relaity it's because Linux tends to ave less security bugs, that are fixed quicker. It is also due to the fact that normal users cant install applications, executbale files have to be given permission to be executed, and any program executed bya user only has the same permissions as the user who started it, so it cant do anything outside the user's own home directory.

You asked alot, but I am going to try to give you some good answers. First off, Linux and Windows are very different, you're going to get yourself stuck if you're always trying to think of things in windows terms. A lot of stuff just doesn't translate, but as you go, you will start to think of things in linux terms. But here is a start for you.

1) CLI commands=> These you will learn as you go more or less. Obviously there are many many commands you can put in. Here are some of the basic ones
ls - list
cd <directory>- change directory
rm <file>- remove
rm -R <folder> - romove folder
cp <file> <new file> -copies
cp -r <folder> <new folder> - copies
mv - move same usage as above
tar -xfvz file.tar.gz --untars a file, usually binary programs
./configure && make && make install -- three commands used to install binary programs
<any command> & -- adding the & to the end of any command that launches a graphical window will leave you with new command line

Others you are going to learn as you go.

2) Program files => In windows, binaries and config files are kept togeather, thats not the case in linux. For your config files, /etc is home for the binary files /bin or /user/local/bin is going to be where they are stored.

3) Defragmenting => as long as your using etx3 or something like that this isn't really something you need to worry about

4) registry => I can't think of anything compairable

5) => the power of the google search engine focuses on linux sights. That combined with here can get you any info you need

6) virus/spyware => there are linux virus, but they are rare, and as for spyware, there aren't enough people using linux for it to be worth the money for the people putting out the spyware. Plus we aren't stupid enough (by and large) to click on stupid things like "Your computer is infected, click here to clean it"

Other than that, just stop by as questions arise, the only way to learn is to roll up your sleaves and dig in.
DS, actually as far as security, especially for the spyware, a lot of it is because there are less linux users. Another factor is, I bet you ten bucks, 90% of virus writers are running linux, not exactly a claim to fame for us, but....

The other thing is, in all actuality, most people's linux boxes are very un-secure, just like windows. Many users install servers such as ftp ssh and apache with out being aware of the risks. With out correctly configuring these servers, as well as a firewall, your system can be left wide open.

The safety comes from the fact that, more or less, there aren't any wide spread security holes. That is, what's a hole on my system, isn't one on yours. When that does happen, distros are, like you said, usually pretty quick about getting patches out and fixing that. The problem is that people don't always update their systems. But that's the same problem windows faces.

In the end, its really diversity that makes linux secure. No two boxes are exactly alike. The fact that all windows boxes are virtually the same, means that a single exploit can be hit on thousands of computers, where as in linux it can't.

At the end of the day though, a well configured, up-to-date linux system is far more secure in general that any windows system will be.
awesome. thanks a lot guys. i've been using linux on and off for the past couple years, but just recently i decided to "roll up my sleaves and dig in" wink.gif i've been learning the commands and various things through a lot of trial and error over the past couple weeks.

so Jim, why is defragmenting unnecessary with an ext3 filing system?
Fragmentation is not a problem with linux filesystems. There better designed then MS. Reserved space is supposed to keep down fragmentation. One of my linux filesystems (ext2) is at least 8 years old and has never gone over 2%.
Thats why. Just one of the many ways that Linux is better than windows.

In a related story. Windows, in an effort to keep with the time-table for releasing Longhorn, the code name for thier latest windows version, scapped that new filesystem in order to focus more on the 3D desktop and new GUI. The new filesystem not only would have reduced the need to defrag but also would have included better indexing so searches could be run much faster. Guess the people at Microsoft felt it was more important to please seven year old girls with a new GUI than to actually make a product that would be better, if if the general public couldn't "see" why.
so what about a comparison to Windows' "Safe Mode" ? Is there any such analogy in Linux? If not, why not?

also, why is there no GOOD information on how to play music/movies (mpeg, mp3, avi, mov, etc.) for linux systems???
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